American organization: National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), organization in the United States that administers intercollegiate athletics. It was formed in 1906 as the Intercollegiate Athletic Association to draw up competition and eligibility rules for football and other intercollegiate sports. The NCAA adopted its current name in 1910. In 1921 it conducted its first national championship event, the National College Track and Field Championship, and it gradually extended its jurisdiction over intercollegiate competition in other sports and their college associations, or conferences. The NCAA did not acquire significant powers to enforce its rules until 1942, however. In 1952 it began regulating live televised coverage of college football in order to protect game attendance in the stadiums.
The NCAA functions as a general legislative and administrative authority for men’s and women’s intercollegiate athletics. It formulates and enforces the rules of play for various sports and the eligibility criteria for athletes. It supervises both regional and national intercollegiate athletic contests, and it conducts nearly 90 national championships in some two dozen sports. In 1973 the NCAA reorganized into three divisions, each representing a different level of competition, with each member college allowed to select the division it belongs to. Each division holds national championship competitions in various sports.
The NCAA compiles statistics on about a dozen college sports, including football, baseball, and men’s and women’s basketball, football (soccer), ice hockey, and lacrosse. It also publishes rule books and guides on these sports as well as on skiing, swimming, diving, track and field (athletics), and wrestling, among others. The NCAA’s membership in the early 21st century included more than 1,000 educational institutions. Its headquarters and museum, the NCAA Hall of Champions, are in Indianapolis, Indiana.